15.
A 4-bit PISO shift register that receives 4 bits of parallel data will shift to the ________ by ________ position(s) for each clock pulse.

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16. To operate correctly, starting a ring counter requires __________.

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17. In order to use a shift register as a counter, ________.

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18. A sequence of equally spaced timing pulses may be easily generated by a(n) __________.

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19. Asynchronous counters are often called ________ counters.

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20. A _________ shift register can shift stored data either left or right.

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21. The mod-10 counter is also referred to as a ________ counter.

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