79. For the economical design of a combined footing to support two equal column loads, the projections of beams in lower tier are kept such that bending moment under column is equal to

81. If L is the overall length of a combined footing having A as its area, d being the distance between the centre of gravity of the base and centre of the base, the larger width b is

82. A structural member subjected to tensile force in a direction parallel to its logitudinal axis, is generally known as

83. The net area of round bars to resist the tension, is the area of cross section at

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